Kakinada is a city and a municipal corporation in East Godavari
district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the headquarters
of East Godavari district. The city has a population of about 800,000(504,920)
as per 2001 census. This coastal city is witnessing rapid growth
thanks to the recently granted Special Economic Zone status. It
is one of the largest tier-2 cities of India. The city also has
a deep-water port which is expanding rapidly.
An old and very small native settlement by name "Kakavandivada"
was said to exist before the foreigners had set their foot somewhere
around the place where the present Kakinada city had developed.
The present name 'Kakinada', it is said, is derived from 'Cocanada'
the name given to their new settlement by a few merchants of Dutch
origin. The Dutch connection with the city is evident from the peculiar
Dutch Character of the architecture and design of some of the old
buildings here. Till then and for some years later, 'Korangi' the
present small sea side village about 15 Kms. south of the present
Kakinada town was a place of greater importance than 'Cocanada'
from the view point of overseas trade and otherwise. Around the
year 1905 the Cocanada Port facility was started to be made use
of for export of some natural commodities. Mainly because of the
transquil anchorage available in the shelter of the Godavari Sand
Spit (also known as Hope Island) which is a nature's gift to this
Port-the town had also grown consistently (from the sixe of small
foreigners settlement) keeping even pace with the growth of merchantile
activity at the Port.
manificience and far-sightedness of Sri Suryarao Bahadur, the
illustrous Raja of Pithapuram was perhaps the most important factor
that contributed to the later growth of the city. Most of the
Institutions, Organisations and Associations which covered the
fields of education, culture and social reform were started either
with his personal initiative or with the help of his liberal donations
and grants. Each of the Institutions and Organisations were to
become, in the later years, the nucleie around which the development
and growth of the Town tookplace. Greatmen of letters and men
with intense zeal for social and political reform, even from outside
the Andhra area, got attracted towards these Institutions.
Cosmopolitan atmosphere that is built-up here, as a consequence,
gave a rare and unique opportunity to atleast two generation of
students and youth of this city and around to get exposed to new
winds of liberal thought which were then blowing over the country.
Sri Raghupati Venkataratnam Naidu, Maharshi Sambamurty, Sri Devulapalli
Krishna Shastry, Smt. Durgabai Deshmukh, Sri. Gora and Sri Uppala
Laxmana Rao were a few among the luminaries whose association
with the city we can ever be proud of. All this made Kakinada
one of the centres of Andhra cultural and intellectual rennaissance.
The Brahma Samaj and the Theosophical movements naturally found
Kakinada to be a highly fertile ground for their consolidation
and spread. The city also had a tradition of high political consciousness
right from the days of the freedom movement. The Late Maharshi
Bulusu Sambamurty, Sri Mallipudi Pallam Raju, Sri Mosalakanti
Tirumala Rao, Dr. Vedantam Krishnayya and his wife Kamala Devi,
Sri Rangayya naidu and Sri Prativadi Bhayankarachari (of the Kakinada
Bomb case fame) were some of the many who had inspired and led
the movements here. The meeting of the Indian National Congress
was held here in the year 1923 under the presidentship of the
famous Mohammed Ali. The meetings were attended by Kasturba Gandhi,
Vallabhai Patel, Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari
and other national leaders. Also, as part of the student and youth
antiimperialist movement led by the Student Federation of India,
the city had the fortune of hosting the Netaji Subhashchandra
Bose in the year 1939. From the Trade Union view-point also, Kakinada
was perhaps the first city in the area where municipal scavanging
workers and the stevedore workers at the Port were organised for
their collective struggles.
this tradition for the city, Kakinada had developed as a cultural,
educational and political centre. Pithapuram Raja's Government
College is now more than 100 years old. The men's Polytechnic
and the Women's Polytechnic, when they were established here,
were the first such Institutions in the Telugu Speaking area.
At the commencement of the II World War, the Engineering College
at Visakhapatnam had to be shifted to this place on a temperory
basis and the college had to be regularised here after the end
of the war when the public had agitated against it shift back
to Visakhapatnam. In the year 1959, under the sage leadership
of Dr. Col.Raju - ably assisted by Dr.M.V.Krishna Rao and Dr.P.V.N.Raju
- Medical Education Society, Kakinada, was formed and the Society
had (with the liberal donation received from the Rangaraya Trust,
Tanuku) started Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada. Subsequently
the college was takeover by the Government. Malladi Satyalingam
Naicker's Charities had established a group of educational institutions
right rom the elementary school to a degree college and also a
Vedic Pathasala to make the campus almost resemble a mini-university
now. The Town Hall which was registered in the beginning of the
Century; K.R.V.K.Library which was started in the year 1916 with
the liberal donation of about 16,000 books from Sri K.R.V.Krishna
Rao, Xamindar of Polavaram and the East Godavari Association the
parent body for the Town Hall and the K.R.V.K.Library - have been
centres for cultural activity here. The Youngmen's Happy Club
- another cultural association here gave its ranks some of the
past and present top ranking artistes to the Telugu stage and
filmdom. Srirama Samajam (founded in 1894 by the late Sri Munuganti
Sriramulu), Sangeeta Vidwat Sabha and Saraswati Gana Sabha - are
three local registered organisations serving the cause of classical
music over the long years to the pleasure of the connoissseur.
The Cocanada Chamber of Commerce exclusively representing the
shipping and foreign trade interests and the Godavari Chamber
of Commerce representing the general trade are the two local Trade
Associations having a record of over 100 years of useful service
to the trading and commercial circles.
this predominently cultural and educational back-ground, a conscious
and sincere effort was made by two individuals Sri Nakka Suryanarayana
Murthy and Sri V. Sathi Raju to put the city on the Industrial
Map of the country. They have together started Sri Ramadas Motor
Transport Company - now a gainst in the automobile industry manufacturing
a wide range of auto parts of high quality. S.R.M.T. has also
encouraged establishment and development of some ancillary units
to itself. Sarvaraya Textiles (manufacturing cotton-yarn) is another
industry that has put the city on the Industrial Map of the Nation.
But, inspite of all this, industrial activity in the city had
been tardy for a few decades mainly because of the lack of atleast
one major industry in or around the city.
of Godavari Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited (manufacturing phosphatic
fertilizer) and Nagarjuna Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited (manufacturing
nitrogeneous fertilisers) at the above position and with the setting-up
of the above fertiliser units, Kakinada is now aptly being called
the "Fertiliser City".
Port which has been functioning as an Anchorage Port till now,
is presently being developed as a Deep Water Berthing Port with
the 250 crores financial assistance from the Asia Development
Bank. Kakinada deep Water Port is expected to be commissioned
with three shore-connected berths shortly.
New Port facility that is comming up along with the availiability
of petroleum and natural gas from the nearby offshore and on-shore
locations for the Krishna-Godavari Basin, are presently opening
up immense possibilities for establishment of port-based and gas-based
heavy industries around Kakinada city. Any person endowed with
a rational perspective vision into the conglomorate (covering
atleast the four Municipal towns & cities of Kakinada. Pithapuram,
Samalkot and Peddapuram) in the vast area surrounding Kakinada
is very rare that any area gets such sudden and sure opportunity
for development of Industry around as Kakinada city and its surrounding
areas have fortunately got at the moment.
Government, the municipal authorities, political parties and enlightened
citizenry of city have to react positively and in time to provide
a good push to this process of inudustrial development around
the city of-course, taking simultaneously all the necessary precautions
to avoid the un-desirable effects of un-planned sudden industrial
growth over the socio-economic life of the city and its surrounding